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Major Sins by Imam Dhahabi – Sorcery

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3) Sorcery

Sorcery is a major sin because the sorcerer must necessarily disbelieve and the accursed Devil has no other motive for teaching a person witchcraft than that he might thereby ascribe associates to Allah.

Allah, the Almighty, says,

{Solomon did not disbelieve but Satan disbelieved, teaching men magic, and such things as came down at Babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (such things) without saying, ‘We are only for trial,’ so do not blaspheme.’ They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not harm anyone except by Allah’s permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them. And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter.} (AI- Baqarah: 102)

Thus, you might find some people who are astray delving in learning sorcery and thinking that it is just unlawful. Actually, they do not consider what they do as disbelief, but it is! They embark on learning all kinds of sorcery: Pure sorcery, increasing or decreasing the love between a man and a woman, making a man important and the like. All of these practices are done by means of some unknown words, most of which lead to unbelief.

The penalty for a sorcerer is to be killed. This is because he is an unbeliever. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Avoid the seven heinous sins.” (Reported before)

And he mentioned sorcery.

“The penalty for a sorcerer is the sword.” (Reported by Tirmidhi)

Bijalah Ibn Abah related, ‘Umar رضى اللّهُ عنه came to us one year before his death and said,

“Kill every sorcerer (male or female).” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

Wahb Ibn Munabbih said, “I read in a book: ‘Allah the Almighty says, ‘There is no god but Me. He is not of Me who practices sorcery, or asks someone to practice with him. The one who foretells or the foretold, the one who seeks an omen or for whom an omen is sought.” (4 Reported by Al- Haythami in “Majma’ Az-Zawa’id to Al-Bazzar)

`Ali Ibn Abi Talib رضى اللّهُ عنه said, “A fortuneteller is a sorcerer, a sorcerer is a disbeliever.”

Abu Musa Al-Ashari رضى اللّهُ عنه related that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“The drunkard, the one who severs the ties of kinship, and whoever believes in sorcery will not enter Paradise.” (Reported by Ahmad)

Ibn Mas’ud رضى اللّهُ عنه related that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Incantations, amulets and spells are Shirk (polytheism).” (Reported by Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Ahmad)

These are treated as Shirk because the ignorant believes that these things can affect what has been predetermined by Allah. However, Al-Khattabi said, “Incantations or healing words are permitted if they consist of the Qur’an or the Most Beautiful Names of Allah.”

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم used to recite (incantate) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain رضي اللّهُ عنهما by saying,

“I seek refuge for you in Allah’s Perfect Words from every Devil, beast or envious.” (Reported by Bukhari)

 

Major Sins by Imam Dhahabi – Killing a Human Being

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Allah, the Almighty, says,

{If a man kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein (forever); and the wrath and curse of Allah are upon him, and a dreadful chastisement is prepared for him.}(An-Nisa:93)

{Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred, except for just cause, nor commit fornication,’ and any that does this (not only) meets punishment.} (Al-Furqan:68)

{Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind…} (Al- Ma’ida:32)

{When the female (infant), buried alive, is questioned -for what crime she was killed.} (Al Takwir:8-9)

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Avoid the seven heinous sins.”

And he mentioned taking one’s life which Allah has made sacred except in the course of justice.

It was related that someone asked the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم,

“What is the most heinous sin in the sight of Allah?” The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم replied, “To hold that Allah has an equal whereas He has created you.”. The man asked, “What else?” The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “To kill your  child lest he feeds with you.” The man asked, “What else?” He said, “To commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife.” (Reported by Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi and An- Nasa’i)

Therefore, Allah, the Almighty, revealed,

{Those who invoke not, with Allah, any other god, nor slay such life as Allah has made sacred, except for just cause, nor commit fornication,. and any that does this (not only) meets punishment. (Al-Furqan:68)

It was related that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“When two Muslims meet with drawn sword, both the slayer and the slain are in the Hell.” It was said, “0 Messenger of Allah, that is for the slayer. But why the slain?” He replied, “Because his intention was to kill the other.” (Reported by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nisa’i, Ibn Majah and Ibn Hibban)

Abu Suliman Al-Khitabi commented, “Such punishment does not apply to a legal and justifiable combat. They entail this abode if they fight one another out of enmity, fanaticism, to acquire some worldly benefit or a position of leadership. Thus, out of this pole is the one who fights against an aggressive Muslim if he follows the rules of fighting and the one who defends himself without intending to kill the opponent.

Whoever fights against an aggressive Muslim or a highway robber, should not seek to kill them. Rather he should try to deter him as much as he can. When they refrain we should refrain.

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“You should not turn an unbeliever when I am no more (among you) and start killing and shedding blood among yourselves.” (Reported before)

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“The first thing among human beings to be adjudicated on the Day of Judgment, will be the blood claim.” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

“Taking a believer’s life is more grievous in Allah’s sight than the perishing of this world.” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

“The major sins are worshipping others with Allah, showing disrespect to parents, killing a human being, and breaking one’s oath.” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

It is termed engulfing because it overwhelms its swearer in the Fire.

“For all the murders committed in this world without any justification, prophet Adam’s son, Qabil will get a share of punishment, because it was he who inaugurated the method  of killing by murdering his brother Habil.”  (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

If this is the abode of he who kills a covenant man then what about killing a Muslim?

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Whoever killed anyone of the people of the covenant will never get the aroma of paradise which can be smelt from forty years away.” (Reported by Bukhari)

“Whoever helps in killing a Muslim even by just a part of a word, he will meet Allah with the written phrase on his forehead “Despondent of Allah’s Mercy.”(Reported by Ibn Majah. It is a weak Hadith)

“Every sin might be forgiven by Allah except for a man dying an unbeliever or a man killing a believer deliberately.” (Reported by Abu Dawud)

 

Major Sins by Imam Dhahabi – Shirk

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The worst major sin is Shirk. It is of two kinds:
a) To hold that Allah has an equal, whereas He has created you, and to worship another with Him, whether it be a stone, tree, sun, moon, prophet, sheikh, star, angel or other. This is the greatest shirk mentioned by Allah, the Most High, the Almighty, says (what means),
{116. Verily! Allâh forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgives whom he pleases sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allâh, has indeed strayed far away. }(An-Nisa:116)
{False worship is indeed the highest wrong-doing.} (Luqman:13)
{Whoever joins other gods with Allah; Allah will forbid him the Garden, and the Fire will be his abode.}
(Al-Ma’idah:72)
The Qur’anic verses concerning this are very numerous. It is being absolutely certain that whoever ascribes associates to Allah and dies in such a state is one of Hell’s inhabitants, just as whoever believes in Allah and dies as a believer is one of the inhabitants of Paradise, even if be should be punished first.
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,
“Shall I tell you of the worst major sins? Worshipping others with Allah, showing disrespect to parents, giving a false statement, and testifying to the truth of a falsehood. ” And he kept repeating it until we were telling ourselves (out of sympathy for him because of the strain of repeating it), “If only he would be silent.” ( Reported by Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi.)
“Avoid the seven heinous sins.” (Reported before)
and he mentioned ascribing associates to Allah.
“Kill whoever converted his religion (Islam).” (Reported by Bukhari, Ahmed, Ibn Hibban, An-Nasa’i and Abu Ya’la.)
b) Ostentation
Allah, the Most High, says (what means),
{Whoever expects to meet his Lord, let him work righteous, and, in the worship of his Lord, admit no one as partner.} (AL-Kahf:11O)
i.e., does not show off in good works
“Beware of the lesser shirk.” They asked, “What is the lesser shirk?” He said, “Showing off in good works. Allah, the Almighty will say when recompensing the mankind for  their deeds: Go to those whom you showed off to in the world to see how they could recompense you. .” (Reported by Ahmad.)
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,
“If anybody associates something with Me, I am not affected.  If anyone associates somebody with Me, in any way, I reject him and his act of associating.” (Reported by Muslim. It’s a Qudsi Hadith.)
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,
“A person who does some good work in order to boast will have his faults exposed by Allah Most High and a person whose motive in doing some good deed is to show it, Allah the Most High will treat him as a hypocrite.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari.)
The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,
“There may be a faster who does not gain from his fasting but hunger and thirst.”
A wise man said, “Just as the one who shows off in good works is the one who fills his purse with pebbles and leaves for the market to buy food. If he opened it before the seller he will be stoned with it in his face. He gains nothing but the people’s inquiry about what fills his purse, nothing more. Thus, the one who shows off in good works will have no value but the people’s saying that he did good and he will not be rewarded in the Hereafter.”
Allah, the Almighty, says (what means),
{And We shall turn to whatever deeds they did (in this life), and We shall make such deed as floating dust scattered about.} (Al-Furqan:23)
It was related that a man asked the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم
“How can I be redeemed?” The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “If you do not deceive Allah” The man asked, “How is Allah deceived?” He replied, “When you do something which Allah and His Messenger commanded you to do but you intended other than pleasing Allah. Beware of ostentation, it is the lesser shirk (polytheism); On the Day of Judgment, the ostentatious will be called at the presence of all creatures by four names: O Ostentatious, O traitors, O corrupt, O loser; what you did is wasted and your reward is nullified. We will not reward you, go and get your reward from whomever you acted to deceive?” (Reported by AI-Zubaidi in lthaf)
A wise man was asked, “Who is the sincere one?” He replied, “It is he who hides his good deeds as he does with his bad deeds.” Someone asked, “What is the good of sincerity?” He said, “When you dislike to be praised by people.”
Al-Fudail Ibn Eiad, may Allah be pleased with him said, “To refrain from an action for the sake of people is ostentation. To do something for their sake is shirk (polytheism). But sincerity is to be aware of them.”

					

Major Sins by Imam Dhahabi

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Definition:

Major sins are defined as what is forbidden by Allah عَزّ وَ جلّ and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم in the Qur’an and the Sunnah in addition to what is narrated on the authority of early Muslims. Allah, the Most high, promises whoever avoids the major sins to expiate his minor sins. Allah, the Almighty says (what means),

{If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise)} (An-Nisaa :31)

In this text, Allah, the Most High, also promises whoever avoids the major sins to admit him to Paradise.

Allah, the Almighty says (what means),

{Those who avoid the greater sins and indecencies, and when they are angry even they forgive;}
(Ash-Shura:37)

The Qur’an also states,

{Those who avoid great sins and indecent deeds, save lesser offences, verily thy Lord is ample in forgiveness.}                                              (An-Najm:32)

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,


“The five prescribed Prayers, and from one Friday Prayer to another and from Ramadan to another
entail forgiveness for what is between them as long as you do not commit the major sins.”
 (Reported by Muslim, Tirmithi, Ibn Khuzaymah and Ahmed)

We are obliged to learn about what the major sins are, so that Muslims may avoid them. Scholars of Sacred knowledge are of different opinions about the number of the major sins. It is argued that they are only seven owing to the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه و سلم saying,

“Avoid the seven heinous sins: Worshipping others with Allah, sorcery, taking a life which Allah has made sacred except in the course of justice, devouring usury, appropriating the property of the orphan, fleeing from the battlefield, and charging believing women, unmindful though innocent, with adultery.” (Reported by Bukhari and Muslim)

Ibn Abbas holds that they are likely counted as seventy not seven. That is a good point of view because enumeration is not intended in the Hadith.

As a matter of fact, any sin entailing either a threat of punishment in the Hereafter explicitly mentioned by the Qur’an or Hadith, a prescribed legal penalty (Hadd), or being accursed by Allah or His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم is called a major sin. We have to bear in mind that some major sins are more heinous than others. This is because the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم has enlisted Shirk (worshipping others with Allah) though a polytheist will suffer eternal torture in Fire and will never be forgiven.

Allah, the Almighty says (what means),

{116. Verily! Allâh forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgives whom he pleases sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allâh, has indeed strayed far away.}
(An-Nisa:116)

 

 

How do the angels know what is in the heart of man?

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Praise be to Allaah.

Al-Bukhaari (6491) and Muslim (131) narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, relating from his Lord, may He be glorified and exalted: “Allaah decreed good deeds and bad deeds, then He explained that. Whoever thinks of doing a good deed then does not do it, Allaah will write it down as one complete good deed. If he thinks of doing a good deed and then does it, Allaah [may He be glorified and exalted] will write it down between ten and seven hundred fold, or many more. If he thinks of doing a bad deed then he does not do it, Allaah will write it down as one complete good deed, and if he thinks of it then does it, Allaah will write it down as one bad deed.” 

Al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar said in Fath al-Baari (11/325).

This indicates that the angel can see what is in the heart of the human being, either because Allaah informs him of it or because Allaah has granted him some knowledge by means of which he is able to find it out.

The former view is supported by the report narrated by Ibn Abi’l-Dunya from Abu ‘Imraan al-Jawni who said: He calls out to the angel: Write down such and such for So and so, and he says: O Lord, he did not do it. He says: He intended it. 

And it was said that the angel detects a foul odour when a person is thinking of doing a bad deed, and he detects a good smell for a good deed. That was narrated by al-Tabaraani from Abu Ma’shar al-Madani. A similar report was narrated from Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) was asked about the words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), “When a person thinks of doing a good deed but does not do it, one good deed is recorded for him…” If his thinking about it is something hidden and is between him and his Lord, how can the angels see it?

He replied:

Praise be to Allaah. An answer to this question was narrated from Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah, who said: If he thinks of doing a good deed, the angel smells a good fragrance, and if he thinks of doing a bad deed, the angel smells a foul odour. 

In fact, Allaah is able to tell the angels what is in a person’s heart in whatever manner He wishes. End quote.

Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (4/253)

And he (may Allaah have mercy on him) also said:

Even if they smell the good scent and foul odour, their knowledge is not dependent on what they smell; rather they know what is in the heart of the human being, they can hear it and see the whispers of his nafs. Even the shaytaan gets hold of his heart, and when he remembers Allaah he retreats, but if his heart neglects to remember Allaah he starts to whisper. He knows whether he is remembering Allaah or neglecting to remember Him, and he knows what his nafs desires or is inclined towards, and he makes that attractive to him.  

It is proven in al-Saheeh from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) in a hadeeth narrated by Safiyyah (may Allaah be pleased with her) that “The shaytaan flows through the son of Adam like blood.” 

The fact that the angels and the shaytaan are close to a person’s heart is something that is mentioned in numerous reports which reach the level of tawaatur, whether the person is a believer or a disbeliever. End quote from Majmoo’ al-Fataawa (5/508).

As for what a person thinks in his heart without moving his tongue and uttering it, he will be rewarded for that, but it is not the particular reward that is bestowed by the Lawgiver to the one who mentions that, rather that reward comes for speaking, and speaking is only achieved by uttering the words. But there are some scholars who say that moving the tongue is sufficient even if there is no sound that can be heard. This is the view of the Maalikis and is the view favoured by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah, that it is sufficient to move the lips even if the words cannot be heard. End quote.

The majority of scholars think that it is essential to speak the words loud enough to be heard by oneself. Al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Sharh al-Muhadhdhab (3/120): If he cannot hear himself then it is not an announcement or speech. End quote.

He also said: It should be noted that the adhkaar that are prescribed in prayer and elsewhere, whether they are obligatory or mustahabb, do not count for anything unless they are uttered so that he can hear himself if his hearing is sound. Al-Adhkaar (42). 

Adopted from islam-qa

Tafsir of Ayah 2:185 (fasting in Ramadhan)

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[شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِى أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ ]

(185. The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up] from other days. Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.)

The Virtue of Ramadan and the Revelation of the Qur’an in it.

Allah praised the month of Ramadan out of the other months by choosing it to send down the Glorious Qur’an, just as He did for all of the Divine Books He revealed to the Prophets. Imam Ahmad reported Wathilah bin Al-Asqa` that Allah’s Messenger said:

«أُنْزِلَتْ صُحُفُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي أَوَّلِ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ، وَأُنْزِلَتِ التَّوْرَاةُ لِسِتَ مَضَيْنَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ، وَالْإِنْجِيلُ لِثَلاثَ عَشَرةَ خَلَتْ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ، وَأَنْزَلَ اللهُ الْقُرْآنَ لأَرْبَعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ خَلَتْ مِنْ رَمَضَان»

(The Suhuf (Pages) of Ibrahim were revealed during the first night of Ramadan. The Torah was revealed during the sixth night of Ramadan. The Injil was revealed during the thirteenth night of Ramadan. Allah revealed the Qur’an on the twenty-fourth night of Ramadan.)

The Virtues of the Qur’an

Allah said:

 [هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَى وَالْفُرْقَانِ]

(…a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong))

Here Allah praised the Qur’an, which He revealed as guidance for the hearts of those who believe in it and adhere to its commands. Allah said:

[وَبَيِّنَـتٍ]

(and clear proofs) meaning, as clear and unambiguous signs and unequivocal proof for those who understand them. These proofs testify to the truth of the Qur’an, its guidance, the opposite of misguidance, and how it guides to the straight path, the opposite of the wrong path, and the distinction between the truth and falsehood, and the permissible and the prohibited.

The Obligation of Fasting Ramadan

Allah said:

[فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ]

(So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadan, i.e., is present at his home), he must observe Sawm (fasting) that month.)

This Ayah requires the healthy persons who witness the beginning of the month, while residing in their land, to fast the month. This Ayah abrogated the Ayah that allows a choice of fasting or paying the Fidyah. When Allah ordered fasting, He again mentioned the permission for the ill person and the traveler to break the fast and to fast other days instead as compensation. Allah said:

[وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَى سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ]

(…and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasting) must be made up] from other days.)

This Ayah indicates that ill persons who are unable to fast or fear harm by fasting, and the traveler, are all allowed to break the fast. When one does not fast in this case, he is obliged to fast other days instead. Allah said:

[يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ]

(Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.)

This Ayah indicates that Allah allowed such persons, out of His mercy and to make matters easy for them, to break the fast when they are ill or traveling, while the fast is still obligatory on the healthy persons who are not traveling.

Several Rulings concerning the Fast

The authentic Sunnah states that Allah’s Messenger traveled during the month of Ramadan for the battle for Makkah. The Prophet marched until he reached the area of Kadid and then broke his fast and ordered those who were with him to do likewise. This was recorded in the Two Sahihs. Breaking the fast mentioned in this Hadith was not required, for the Companions used to go out with Allah’s Messenger during the month of Ramadan, then, some of them would fast while some of them would not fast and neither category would criticize the others. If the command mentioned in the Hadith required breaking the fast, the Prophet would have criticized those who fasted. Allah’s Messenger himself sometimes fasted while traveمling. For instance, it is reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “We once went with Allah’s Messenger during Ramadan while the heat was intense. One of us would place his hand on his head because of the intense heat. Only Allah’s Messenger and `Abdullah bin Rawahah were fasting at that time.”
We should state that observing the permission to break the fast while traveling is better, as Allah’s Messenger said about fasting while traveling:

«مَنْ أَفْطَرَ فَحَسَنٌ، وَمَنْ صَامَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْه»

[فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ] (Those who did not fast have done good, and there is no harm for those who fasted.)

In another Hadith, the Prophet said:

«عَلَيْكُمْ بِرُخْصَةِ اللهِ الَّتِي رُخِّصَ لَكُم»

(Hold to Allah’s permission that He has granted you.)

Some scholars say that the two actions are the same, as `A’ishah narrated that Hamzah bin `Amr Al-Aslami said, “O Messenger of Allah! I fast a lot, should I fast while traveling” The Prophet said:

«إِنْ شِئْتَ فَصُمْ، وَإِنْ شِئْتَ فَأَفْطِر»

(Fast if you wish or do not fast if you wish.)

This Hadith is in the Two Sahihs. It was reported that if the fast becomes difficult (while traveling), then breaking the fast is better. Jabir said that Allah’s Messenger saw a man who was being shaded (by other people while traveling). The Prophet asked about him and he was told that man was fasting. The Prophet said:

«لَيْسَ مِنَ الْبِرِّ الصِّيَامُ فِي السَّفَر»

(It is not a part of Birr (piety) to fast while traveling.) This was recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.

As for those who ignore the Sunnah and believe in their hearts that breaking the fast while traveling is disliked, they are required to break the fast and are not allowed to fast.
As for making up for missed fasting days, it is not required to be consecutive. One may do so consecutively or not consecutively. There are ample proofs to this fact. We should mention that fasting consecutive days is only required exclusively during Ramadan. After the month of Ramadan, what is required then is to merely make up for missed days. This is why Allah said:(. ..the same number (should be made up) from other days.)

Ease and not Hardship

Allah then said:

[يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ]

(Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.)

Imam Ahmad recorded Anas bin Malik saying that Allah’s Messenger said:

«يَسِّرُوا وَلَا تُعَسِّرُوا وَسَكِّنُوا وَلَا تُنَفِّرُوا»

(Treat the people with ease and don’t be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don’t fill them with aversion.)

This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs. It is reported in the Sahihayn that Allah’s Messenger said to Mu`adh and Abu Musa when he sent them to Yemen:

«بَشِّرَا وَلَا تُنَفِّرَا، وَيَسِّرَا وَلَا تُعَسِّرَا، وَتَطَاوَعَا وَلَا تَخْتَلِفَا»

(Treat the people with ease and don’t be hard on them; give them glad tidings and don’t fill them with aversion; and love each other, and don’t differ.)

The Sunan and the Musnad compilers recorded that Allah’s Messenger said:

«بُعِثْتُ بِالْحَنِيفِيَّةِ السَّمْحَة»

(I was sent with the easy Hanifiyyah (Islamic Monotheism).)
Allah’s statement:

[يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلاَ يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ]

(Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days)) means: You were allowed to break the fast while ill, while traveling, and so forth, because Allah wanted to make matters easy for you. He only commanded you to make up for missed days so that you complete the days of one month. 

Remembering Allah upon performing the Acts of Worship
Allah’s statement:

[وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ]

(…and that you must magnify Allah [i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)] for having guided you) means: So that you remember Allah upon finishing the act of worship. This is similar to Allah’s statement:

[فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَـسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ ءَابَآءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا]

(So when you have accomplished your Manasik, (rituals) remember Allah as you remember your forefathers or with far more remembrance.) (2:200) and:

[فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَوةُ فَانتَشِرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ وَابْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ وَاذْكُرُواْ اللَّهَ كَثِيراً لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ]

(…Then when the (Jumu`ah) Salah (prayer) is ended, you may disperse through the land, and seek the bounty of Allah (by working), and remember Allah much, that you may be successful.) (62:10) and:

 

[فَاصْبِرْ عَلَى مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ الْغُرُوبِ – وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ وَأَدْبَـرَ السُّجُودِ ]

(…and glorify the praises of your Lord, before the rising of the sun and before (its) setting. And during a part of the night, glorify His praises, and after the prayers.) (50:39, 40)

This is why the Sunnah encouraged Tasbih (saying Subhan Allah, i.e., all praise is due to Allah), Tahmid (saying Al-Hamdu Lillah, i.e., all the thanks are due to Allah) and Takbir (saying Allahu Akbar, i.e., Allah is the Most Great) after the compulsory prayers. Ibn `Abbas said, “We used to know that Allah’s Messenger has finished the prayer by the Takbir.” Similarly, several scholars have stated that reciting Takbir the during `Id-ul-Fitr was specified by the Ayah that states:

 

[وَلِتُكْمِلُواْ الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُواْ اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ]

((He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allah [i.e., to say Takbir (Allahu Akbar: Allah is the Most Great)] for having guided you…) Allah’s statement:

[وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ]

(…so that you may be grateful to Him.) means: If you adhere to what Allah commanded you, obeying Him by performing the obligations, abandoning the prohibitions and abiding by the set limits, then perhaps you will be among the grateful.

[Tafsir Ibn Katheer]

                                    

Guidance of the Prophet in fasting (I)

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All praise is due to  Allah.  May  He  bestow  His  peace  and blessings  upon  His Prophet, his relatives, companions and those  who are  loyal  to him.

Ibn al Qayim  mentioned that: ‘Among the guidance of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم  in the month of Ramadan was his engagement in many forms  of worship. The angel  Gabriel used to teach him the Quran in this  month. Whenever Gabriel met him he was more generous than  a guided  breeze. He was, ordinarily, the most charitable person, and  yet when  Ramadan arrived he  became   even  more  generous. He gave  much charity and  engaged  in kind  acts,  recitation of the Quran, prayers, remembrance and  retreat during this  month.’

He used to apportion  to Ramadan a degree of worship that was not set aside to any other  month. Sometimes he actually used to continue into the night. The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم , however, forbade his companions  from doing so. When they pointed out to him that he continued he responded saying: ‘My body is not like yours, I dwell with my Lord, He feeds me and gives me drink’ (Bukhari and Muslim). Accordingly, Allah  Almighty used  to  nourish His Prophet during those  periods of extended fasts with subtle  knowledge, and  abounding wisdom and  light of the message.  Of course, it was not food  and drink  in the literal sense,  for if this were so the Prophet would  not  be consid­ ered  fasting.

When the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم  became satisfied from the worship of  his creator, and  his heart opened up to his aim,  and  his mind  rested  with  the  remembrance of his Master, and  his condition  improved by  his  closeness to  His  Lord,  he forgot all food  and  drink. As it was said: spiritual power is  in  the  essence  of souls, it is not  dependent on  food  or drink. Nothing can  harm   you,  if you  have  attained  the knowledge of your  Lord.

The  Prophet Muhammad  صلى الله عليه و سلم was  the  best of  those  who remembered and  worshipped Allah.  As for  the  month  of Ramadan, it  was  made  to  be a season  of  worship and  a time for remembrance and recitation. His nights were spent in supplication and humiliation unto  his Lord,  seeking  His help,  support, victory  and  guidance. He  read  long  chap­ters  of the  Quran and  stayed  for  long  periods bowing  (in ruku’) and  prostrating himself  before  Him.  Such  was  the desire  that  was  never  satisfied with  worship,  making his standing in the night  a source  of sustenance and supply  as well as  power  and  energy.  Allah  Almighty says:  ‘O Thou enwrapped one! Keep awake [in prayer] at night, all but a small  part’ (73:1).

‘And  rise from  thy sleep  and  pray  during part  of the night [as  well],  as  a free  offering from  thee,  and  thy  Sustainer may well raise thee to a glorious station [in the life to come]’ (17:79).

During the days of the fasting month, the Prophet  صلى الله عليه و سلم spent his time in propagating the Islamic call, engaging in jihad, providing advice and  training,  and  reminding  his companions. Among his practices  was  that  the  Prophet   صلى الله عليه و سلم never commenced  the fast  of  Ramadan except  with  a  vision  of  what  was  to  be achieved. He used to encourage  his companions to partake  of a meal before daybreak. Indeed, it was confirmed that he said:

‘Have  the meal  before daybreak, because there  is blessing in it.’  The period before daybreak  is considered  blessed because it is in the last third of the night, the time of divine descent and forgiveness. Allah says: ‘And  in the hours of early dawn,  they were found praying for forgiveness’ (51:18).

He also says: ‘Those who show  patience, firmness and self­ control; who  are  true  (in  word   and  deed);  who  worship devoutly; who spend  in the way of Allah; and  who  pray for forgiveness in the early  hours of the morning’ (3:17).

Still besides,  the meal before  daybreak helps  the individual in his fast and  worship. It is, therefore, a payment for  the bounty  of worship that  Allah  has bestowed upon  us.

It was also established  that the Prophet  صلى الله عليه و سلم used to hasten to  have  a  meal  after  the  setting  of  the  sun.  He,  likewise, ordered  his companions to do the same. Usually he had dates or  water  because something sweet  was  most  agreeable  for an  empty  stomach. Several  sources  have  narrated that  the Prophet   صلى الله عليه و سلم said: ‘Verily the fasting  person  has a prayer  that will never be rejected.’  Thus,  he used to pray for the good  of this world and the hereafter. He broke his fast before praying Salaat  ul  Maghreb  (the  evening  prayer). In  one  authentic hadith  he said: ‘If the night  enters  from  here and  slips away from  there, then  the faster  should end  his fast.’

The  Prophet Muhammad  صلى الله عليه و سلم  travelled   during   Ramadan, fasting  and  then  breaking  his fast.  In  this  regard,  he gave the companions the choice of fasting or not while travelling. During battle, however,   he  ordered  them  to break  their fasts, to  enable   them  to  fight.  Here  it  would   be recalled that  the Great  Battle of Badr was fought during the month of  Ramadan. Then, Allah  gave  the Muslims a victory  that has known no parallel  since.  Yet, the Prophet  صلى الله عليه و سلم broke  his fast  in two  of his battles  according to narrations by Umar ibn  al Khattab and  collected by AI Tirmidhi and  Ahmad . The  Prophet  صلى الله عليه و سلم did  not,  however,  specify  the  distance after which  the fast  should be broken. There  are  in fact  no au­thentic accounts to prove  this.

There  were, observedly, times when   the   morning prayer,  al Fajr, came  and  the Prophet was still in a state  of impurity following sexual  intercourse. He would, in those circumstances, perform the ritual  bath  and  thereafter fast. In a related matter, he used to kiss some  of his wives while he was  fasting in Ramadan. He compared the  kiss of the fasting person  to the washing of the mouth.

On another  level, the Prophet  Muhammad  صلى الله عليه و سلم ruled that the person who  broke his fast through  a genuine act of forgetfulness was not required to make up that day’s fast. He pointed out that it was Allah Almighty who had fed and given drink to that person. We have learnt from the prophetic  traditions  also that the things which invalidate one’s fast are: eating, drinking, cupping, and vomiting. The Noble Quran  explains that sexual intercourse nullifies fasting  in the same  way that  eating and drinking does.

Among  his  practices also  was  that  of retreat and  seclusion  during the last  ten days  of Ramadan. The  Prophet  صلى الله عليه و سلم did this in order  to attune his heart  ever more with Allah and  to free  his mind  from  the concerns of the  world. The gaze of his heart thus became entirely focused in the heavens.

During this  time,  he limited  his contacts with  people  and intensified his supplication and  prayers to Allah,  the Lord of  all  Majesty and  Glory.  His  heart, therefore, indulged purely  in the contemplation of Allah’s attributes and  qualities.  It  reflected  upon  His  clear signs   in  the   universe and  of Allah’s  creation in the  heavens and  the earth. With all this in mind, it would  be very difficult to determine how much  knowledge Prophet  صلى الله عليه و سلم acquired, or  how  much  light was  revealed  to him,  or how  many  realities were  exposed to  him.  He  was,  without doubt, the  most  knowledgeable person  about Allah,  the  most  fearful of Him,  and  the one who  trusted and  depended upon  Him  the most. Indeed, he was  the  most  pious  of all  men  and  sacrificed himself  the most for the sake  of Allah! May  the peace and  blessings  of Allah  be upon  him.